Wastewater treatment unit operations and processes 1-12 N. Ak, H. Dumrul

Energy Education Science and Technology Part C: Future Energy Sources

2017 Volume (issue) 9(1): 1-12




Wastewater treatment unit operations and processes



Namik Ak1,*, Hakan Dumrul2

1Adiyaman University, Faculty of Engineering, Adiyaman, Turkey

2Sirnak University, Faculty of Engineering, Sirnak, Turkey




Received: 10 July 2016; accepted 30 September 2016



    Wastewater treatment (WWT) is necessary to use rivers and streams for fishing, swimming and drinking water. The municipal sector consumes a considerable amount of water and therefore generates significant amounts of wastewater discharge. Treatment for the reuse and disposal of wastewater is especially important for industrialized nations. Untreated wastewater usually contains a large number of organic substances, a large number of pathogenic microorganisms as well as nutrients and toxic compounds. The ultimate goal of wastewater management is to protect the environment in proportion to public health and socio-economic concerns. The effects of unloading of untreated wastewater are variable and depend on the types and concentrations of pollutants. Various physical, chemical and biological methods are used to remove pollutants from wastewater. There are primary, secondary and tertiary treatment levels for wastewater treatment. In industrialized countries, tertiary applications are increasingly being implemented and the most common technologies are microfiltration or synthetic membranes. After the membrane filtration, treated wastewater is almost indistinguishable from natural drinking water. The purpose of primary treatment is to reduce the velocity of the wastewater sufficiently to permit solids to settle and floatable material to surface. Secondary treatment depends primarily upon aerobic organisms which biochemically decompose the organic solids to inorganic or stable organic solids. Secondary treatment removes dissolved organic matter that escapes from the primary treatment.

Keywords: Wastewater; Treatment; Contaminants; Wastewater management; Protect the environment